A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in your pituitary gland that can cause an This can lead to different endocrine disorders, such as acromegaly. Acromegaly. Cushings Disease. Diabetes Insipidus. Hyperprolactinemia. Hypopituitarism. Pituitary Tumors. Traumatic Brain Injury.Pituitary Tumors · Cushing's Disease · Hypopituitarism · Acromegaly. The pituitary is a small gland (about the size of a kidney bean) located at the base of the brain, just beneath the optic (eye) nerve in a bony area called the sella.
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These disorders can result in a wide variety of different clinical conditions, depending on which hormone signal s are disrupted. See below for specific information about different pituitary disorders.
Prolactin Prolactin is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland, which normally stimulates milk production lactation for breastfeeding in women. The pituitary cells that produce prolactin lactotrophs are sensitive to a variety of stimulating factors, which can result in temporary, mild elevations of prolactin in the blood, which are not associated with any problems.
However, higher prolactin levels, if sustained, can disorders of pituitary gland disruption of reproductive hormone signals, resulting in low reproductive hormones estrogen in women, testosterone in menas well as unwanted lactation. Significantly elevated prolactin levels can be caused by certain medications, or by a prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors prolactinoma.
To determine the cause of high prolactin levels requires specialized testing under the guidance of a pituitary specialist usually an endocrinologist. If a prolactinoma is discovered, it usually requires treatment with medication to reduce the prolactin level and shrink the tumor.
If a tumor is very large, it can press against the optic eye nerve, which disorders of pituitary gland affect vision.
Pituitary surgery is usually not needed for most people with prolactinomas, unless the tumor is large and causing significant problems e. Cushing's Disease Cushing's disease is a rare condition caused by an overproduction of the adrenal hormone cortisol.
The most common form of Cushing's disease is due to an excess secretion of the pituitary hormone, ACTH adrenocorticotropic disorders of pituitary glandwhich circulates in the blood and stimulates the adrenal gland.
Too much cortisol in the blood can result in a variety of symptoms, including weight gain especially in the abdominal areahigh blood pressure, thinning of the skin, easy bruising and others.
These signs and symptoms are usually slow to progress and may be intermittent. For this reason, Cushing's disease is often difficult to diagnose.
The diagnosis of Cushing's disease requires specialized testing, usually by an endocrinologist. If it is determined to be due to oversecretion from the pituitary gland, then pituitary surgery is often needed.
Surgery may be curative, but recurrence of Cushing's disease after pituitary surgery is relatively disorders of pituitary gland. For this reason, medication is also often used.
Pituitary Disorders | MedlinePlus
In children, this can result in increased height gigantism. In adults, excessive growth hormone causes overgrowth of tissues and disorders of pituitary gland bones of the body over many years. This condition is often complicated by metabolic, heart and bone problems, including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart function problems, arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors are usually treated and in some cases cured by surgical removal of the tumor from the pituitary gland.
Cushing's disease can also be caused by a small disorders of pituitary gland in one, or both, of the adrenal glands or less likely tumors in the lungs or pancreas.
The disease is more common in women and mostly seen in middle-age groups, although it can be seen in any age.
Pituitary Disorders: Pituitary Tumors
Patients often complain of progressive weight gain, depression, muscle weakness, easy skin bruising, impotence in men and irregular periods in females. The treatment is usually surgery, which needs to be disorders of pituitary gland by an experienced neurosurgeon.
Radiotherapy may be used in some patients that are not cured by surgery. Medical therapy has only a limited role in the management of this disease.