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Hindu society, the most prominent of those under the sway of English imperialism, was broken in pieces and frozen, fixed in the form of thousands of castes which could not associate with each other. Buku tan malaka pdf merge long before the time of Jesus the division of Hindu society into several castes was already perturbing those thinkers who were honest, and giving birth to humanitarianism.

The reaction aganist caste society came from the great thinker Siddhartha Gautama, heir to the raja of Kapilavastu.

Tan Malaka

Siddhartha Gautama, or the Buddha, was strongly opposed to the division of humanity into several castes and propaganized to the effect that members of the Brahmin caste could enter Nirvana after death, but only if buku tan malaka pdf merge seriously carried out their religious duties.

The process of democratization of Hindu society that began more or less years B. But the action that was carried through by Siddhartha Gautama and his followers ending in victory around buku tan malaka pdf merge followed by a reaction from the Hindu side.

This reaction was completely victorious, and up until now Hinduism still lords it over Hindu society. After the 14th Century there entered from the direction of the north a new religion, known as Islam, which had arisen in Arabia.

Philosophy of Life

Islam quickly gained adherents in Hindustan both via propaganda in a peaceful fashion and by the road of warfare. Before European imperialism forced its way into India it was a Muslim who became emperor of Hindustan.

Indonesia-India The philosophical movement glanced buku tan malaka pdf merge briefly above was also active here in Indonesia.

We recognize the development and expansion of the religion of Islam.

Agama itu Bukan Candu: Tesis-tesis Feuerbach, Marx dan Tan Malaka by Eko P. Darmawan

With the growing dominance of Hindu commerce in Indonesia year after year there arose likewise the growing dominance of the Hindu nation later also of the Arab nation over the society and politics of early Indonesia.

With that came the growing dominance of the whole of Hindu and Arab Islamic religion over Indonesian society buku tan malaka pdf merge. In those circumstances, at the culmination of the hegemony of each religion, Hindu or Arab i.

Islamthe ancient Indonesian beliefs, beliefs which appeared within the world of Indonesia iself, i.


The ghosts [hantu] who reside in tall trees, in the jungle expanses or in the plunging waters which continuously pour forth still impinged upon the soul of the inhabitants of Indonesia who saw and approached them.

Parallels in the realm of belief in buku tan malaka pdf merge Hindu period accord also with parallels in the economic realm of the Indonesian nation in this period.

Although foreign commerce and enterprise flourished and gained power over the society buku tan malaka pdf merge Indonesia, Indonesia never passed from the hands of its people. In other words the wet rice fields, the unirrigated fields, plus the woods, rivers and seas, in short the land, water and air still remained within the grasp of the ancient Indonesian race.

Hence the ancient Indonesian nation was still guaranteed a better and more splendid future than in the times already past. The means of livelihood still tightly grasped, the land, the water and the especially generous atmosphere, which somehow intensively pressed down upon both foreigners and the nation itself in the Hindu period, all guaranteed an existence, even if an extremely simple one.

As in cases of the wealth and magnanimity of nature [alam], which do not compel members of the human community to struggle with each other and kill each other in order to get hold of basic necessities, images of various different kinds of Mahadewa could enter under one roof, Unlike the situation in the country of origin, among the Swarga-loka of Java we can witness an image of the Destroyer, Shiva, side by side with one of the Creator, Vishnu, both smiling at each other.

Concerning this part of the world we have a great deal of historical evidence, the oldest from any part of the world. Egypt in that period many thousands of years ago likewise recognized various different gods.

Among those various gods then was the god Ra, i. So according buku tan malaka pdf merge the religion of the ancient Egyptians the god Ra decreed the earth, the sky, the river Nile and the desert, along with domestic buku tan malaka pdf merge and humans.

All this was fashioned at once via the utterance of one word only, that is to say, Ptah. So unlike the view of Kant, Laplace or Darwin, according to the prior religion of ancient Egypt in that age the world and its inhabitants were formed in less than a second from the void by means of the utterance of Ptah.